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Somilie The Central Bank of Somalia is the official monetary authority of Somalia. The discovery of oil and minerals in Somalia, as well as the power and money associated with politics and business, has created more opportunities for families to get ahead, and has also created more reasons for families to have disputes. Retrieved 27 June Bloomberg BusinessWeek. The Somilie Lustige Auto Spiele him the "Mad Mullah" and spent about 30 Free Spiele Apps fighting him, eventually using fighter planes against his cavalry. Archived from the original on 9 Www Indoplay In September, parliament SeriГ¶se Broker Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, an advocate for civil rights, as president. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed. The Guardian. Somalia's economy consists of both traditional and modern production, with a gradual shift toward modern industrial techniques. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia's public healthcare system was largely destroyed during the ensuing civil war. Horn Relief. Football is the most popular sport in Somalia. President Donald Trump has ordered the majority of US troops to leave Somalia "by early ," in just the latest major military policy decision being taken in the final days of the Trump. Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia is a sovereign country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland. The US military must not wash its hands of international legal obligations towards civilian victims of US air strikes in Somalia, Amnesty International said, following a Pentagon announcement that troops will be removed by January The Trump administration will pull virtually all of the US’s roughly troops in Somalia out of the country just five days before President-elect Joe Biden takes office. The withdrawal. President Donald Trump has ordered the Pentagon to remove the majority of the U.S. military troops in Somalia from the country, according to a Pentagon statement. The order changes the mission.

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From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Somaliland. Coat of arms.

Area controlled by Somalia shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region Somaliland shown in light green.

Somali Arabic. Main article: Daraawiish State. Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 06 October United Nations.

Retrieved 20 June Supplement : Countries and territories of Africa. Territories and dependencies. States with limited recognition.

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland. Hidden categories: Articles containing Somali-language text Articles containing Arabic-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Commons category link from Wikidata.

Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Change Change source View history. Wikimedia Commons. Flag Coat of arms. Federal parliamentary republic.

Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed. Federal Parliament. Somali shilling SOS. A map of Somalia regions. The French established a coal-mining station in at the site of Djibouti, and the Italians planted a settlement in Eritrea.

Egypt, which for a time claimed Turkish rights in the area, was succeeded by Britain. By , a British and an Italian protectorate occupied what is now Somalia.

The British ruled the entire area after , with Italy returning in to serve as United Nations trustee for its former territory.

By , Britain and Italy granted independence to their respective sectors, enabling the two to join as the Republic of Somalia on July 1, On Oct.

In , Somalia openly backed rebels in the easternmost area of Ethiopia, the Ogaden Desert, which had been seized by Ethiopia at the turn of the century.

Somalia acknowledged defeat in an eight-month war against the Ethiopians that year, having lost much of its 32,man army and most of its tanks and planes.

President Siad Barre fled the country in late Jan. His departure left Somalia in the hands of a number of clan-based guerrilla groups, none of which trusted each other.

Africa's worst drought of the century occurred in , and, coupled with the devastation of civil war, Somalia was plunged into a severe famine that killed , The last of the U.

Since Somalia has been engulfed in anarchy. Years of peace negotiations between the various factions were fruitless, and warlords and militias ruled over individual swaths of land.

In , a breakaway nation, the Somaliland Republic, proclaimed its independence. Since then several warlords have set up their own ministates in Puntland and Jubaland.

Although internationally unrecognized, these states have been peaceful and stable. In Aug. In Oct.

Parliament selected a national president in September, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, the president of the breakaway region of Puntland.

The new government, however, spent its first year operating out of Kenya—Somalia remained too violent and unstable to enter—eventually settling in the provincial town of Baidoa.

On June 6, the Islamist militia seized control of the capital, Mogadishu, and established control in much of the south. Somalia's transitional government, led by President Abdullahi Yusuf and situated in Baidoa, spent months engaged in unsuccessful peace negotiations with the Islamic Courts Council.

In the meantime, neighboring Ethiopia, which has clashed in the past with Somalia's Islamists and considers them a threat to regional security, began amassing troops on the border.

In mid-December, Ethiopia launched air strikes against the Islamists, and in a matter of days Ethiopian ground troops and Somali soldiers loyal to the transitional government regained control of Mogadishu.

A week later most of the Islamists had been forced to flee the country. Ethiopia announced that its troops would remain in the country until stability was assured and a functional central government had been established, ending Somalia's 15 years of anarchy.

In Jan. The air strikes were strongly criticized in a number of Muslim countries, which accused the Americans of killing Somali civilians.

Battles between the insurgents and Somali and Ethiopian troops intensified in March, leaving civilians dead in what has been called the worst fighting in 15 years.

The fighting created a humanitarian crisis, with more than , Somalis fleeing the fighting in Mogadishu in just two months.

In July, a national reconciliation conference opened in Mogadishu but was quickly postponed when leading opposition figures failed to appear.

The fighting intensified once again in October. Fighting escalated until 19 American troops and more than 1, civilians and militia were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October In August , Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.

Following the outbreak of the civil war, many of Somalia's residents left in search of asylum. According to the UNHCR , there were around , registered refugees from the country in neighboring states as of A consequence of the collapse of governmental authority that accompanied the civil war was the emergence of piracy in the unpatrolled Indian Ocean waters off of the coast of Somalia.

The phenomenon partly arose as an attempt by local fishermen to protect their livelihood from illegal fishing by foreigners. Abdiqasim Salad Hassan was selected as the President of the nation's new Transitional National Government TNG , an interim administration formed to guide Somalia to its third permanent republican government.

Its mandate ended at the same time. The Transitional Federal Government TFG was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August , when its tenure officially ended.

The Transitional Federal Government officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch.

The government was headed by the President of Somalia , to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister. However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively.

In , the Islamic Courts Union ICU , an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a.

The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops , African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule.

The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in that the federal government controlled most of the country.

Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab , regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia.

Throughout and , Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia.

At the end of , the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January , Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government's troops.

Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community, President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country.

Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.

In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had been mandated to do.

The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation.

With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February to assume full control of the southern half of the country.

As a truce, in March , Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.

During the coalition government's brief tenure and one year afterwards, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, the Fund For Peace 's Fragile States Index FSI; formerly known as the Failed States Index listed Somalia on top for six consecutive years between and The former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned the month before following a protracted dispute with President Sharif over a proposed draft constitution.

Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks.

In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions. According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics.

Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers required the Premier's consent. In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place.

Part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions, the agreement saw the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August In October , a coordinated operation, Operation Linda Nchi between the Somali and Kenyan militaries and multinational forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia.

As part of the official "Roadmap for the End of Transition", a political process that provided clear benchmarks leading toward the formation of permanent democratic institutions in Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government's interim mandate ended on 20 August The Federal Government of Somalia , the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war, was later established in August By , Somalia was no longer at the top of the fragile states index , dropping to second place behind South Sudan.

In October , more than people were killed by twin bomb explosions in Somalia's capital city Mogadishu. Somalia is officially divided into eighteen regions gobollada , singular gobol , [5] which in turn are subdivided into districts.

The regions are:. Northern Somalia is now de facto divided up among the autonomous regions of Puntland which considers itself an autonomous state and Somaliland a self-declared but unrecognized sovereign state.

In central Somalia, Galmudug is another regional entity that emerged just south of Puntland. Jubaland in the far south is a fourth autonomous region within the federation.

The Federal Parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the autonomous regional states officially Federal Member States within the Federal Republic of Somalia.

Somalia is bordered by Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west.

The country claims a border with Djibouti through the disputed territory of Somaliland to the northwest. Strategically located at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal , the country occupies the tip of a region that, due to its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros ' horn, is commonly referred to as the Horn of Africa.

Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus , plains and highlands. Somalia has several islands and archipelagos on its coast, including the Bajuni Islands and the Saad ad-Din Archipelago : see islands of Somalia.

In the north, a scrub-covered, semi-desert plain referred as the Guban lies parallel to the Gulf of Aden littoral. With a width of twelve kilometres in the west to as little as two kilometres in the east, the plain is bisected by watercourses that are essentially beds of dry sand except during the rainy seasons.

When the rains arrive, the Guban's low bushes and grass clumps transform into lush vegetation. Cal Madow is a mountain range in the northeastern part of the country.

The Ogo's western plateau, in turn, gradually merges into the Haud , an important grazing area for livestock. Somalia has only two permanent rivers, the Jubba and Shabele , both of which begin in the Ethiopian Highlands.

The Shabele River at one time apparently used to enter the sea near Merca , but now reaches a point just southwest of Mogadishu.

After that, it consists of swamps and dry reaches before finally disappearing in the desert terrain east of Jilib , near the Jubba River.

Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 1. From onward, a massive tree-planting campaign on a nationwide scale was introduced by the Siad Barre government to halt the advance of thousands of acres of wind-driven sand dunes that threatened to engulf towns, roads and farm land.

This educational effort led in to the so-called "Somalia proposal" and a decision by the Somali government to adhere to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES , which established for the first time a worldwide ban on the trade of elephant ivory.

Later, Fatima Jibrell , a prominent Somali environmental activist, mounted a successful campaign to salvage old-growth forests of acacia trees in the northeastern part of Somalia.

In , Horn Relief coordinated a peace march in the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia to put an end to the so-called "charcoal wars".

As a result of Jibrell's lobbying and education efforts, the Puntland government in prohibited the exportation of charcoal.

Following the massive tsunami of December , there have also emerged allegations that after the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in the late s, Somalia's long, remote shoreline was used as a dump site for the disposal of toxic waste.

The huge waves that battered northern Somalia after the tsunami are believed to have stirred up tons of nuclear and toxic waste that might have been dumped illegally in the country by foreign firms.

According to reports by the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP , the waste has resulted in far higher than normal cases of respiratory infections, mouth ulcers and bleeding, abdominal haemorrhages and unusual skin infections among many inhabitants of the areas around the northeastern towns of Hobyo and Benadir on the Indian Ocean coast — diseases consistent with radiation sickness.

UNEP adds that the situation along the Somali coastline poses a very serious environmental hazard not only in Somalia, but also in the eastern Africa sub-region.

Due to Somalia's proximity to the equator , there is not much seasonal variation in its climate. Hot conditions prevail year-round along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.

Although the coastal regions are hot and humid throughout the year, the hinterland is typically dry and hot. There are four main seasons around which pastoral and agricultural life revolve, and these are dictated by shifts in the wind patterns.

From December to March is the Jilal , the harshest dry season of the year. The main rainy season, referred to as the Gu , lasts from April to June.

This period is characterized by the southwest monsoons, which rejuvenate the pasture land, especially the central plateau, and briefly transform the desert into lush vegetation.

From July to September is the second dry season, the Xagaa pronounced "Hagaa". The Dayr , which is the shortest rainy season, lasts from October to December.

Somalia contains a variety of mammals due to its geographical and climatic diversity. It also has a large population of the dromedary camel.

Somalia is home to around species of birds. Of these, eight are endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and one is rare or accidental. Fourteen species are globally threatened.

Somalia's territorial waters are prime fishing grounds for highly migratory marine species, such as tuna. A narrow but productive continental shelf contains several demersal fish and crustacean species.

There are roughly species of reptiles. Of these, almost half live in the northern areas. Reptiles endemic to Somalia include the Hughes' saw-scaled viper , the Southern Somali garter snake, a racer Platyceps messanai , a diadem snake Spalerosophis josephscorteccii , the Somali sand boa , the angled worm lizard , a spiny-tailed lizard Uromastyx macfadyeni , Lanza's agama, a gecko Hemidactylus granchii , the Somali semaphore gecko , and a sand lizard Mesalina or Eremias.

A colubrid snake Aprosdoketophis andreonei and Haacke-Greer's skink Haackgreerius miopus are endemic species. Somalia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic.

The President of Somalia is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces and selects a Prime Minister to act as head of government.

The Federal Parliament of Somalia is the national parliament of Somalia. The bicameral National Legislature consists of the House of the People lower house and the Senate upper house , whose members are elected to serve four-year terms.

It also has the authority to pass and veto laws. Adopted on 1 August by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu, [] [] the document was formulated by a committee of specialists chaired by attorney and incumbent Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohamed Osman Jawari.

The national court structure is organized into three tiers: the Constitutional Court, Federal Government level courts and State level courts.

A nine-member Judicial Service Commission appoints any Federal tier member of the judiciary. It also selects and presents potential Constitutional Court judges to the House of the People of the Federal Parliament for approval.

If endorsed, the President appoints the candidate as a judge of the Constitutional Court. The five-member Constitutional Court adjudicates issues pertaining to the constitution, in addition to various Federal and sub-national matters.

Somali law draws from a mixture of three different systems: civil law , Islamic law and customary law.

Somalia's foreign relations are handled by the President as the head of state, the Prime Minister as the head of government, and the federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

According to Article 54 of the national constitution, the allocation of powers and resources between the Federal Government and the Federal Republic of Somalia's constituent Federal Member States shall be negotiated and agreed upon by the Federal Government and the Federal Member States, except in matters pertaining to foreign affairs, national defence, citizenship and immigration, and monetary policy.

Article 53 also stipulates that the Federal Government shall consult the Federal Member States on major issues related to international agreements, including negotiations vis-a-vis foreign trade, finance and treaties.

Additionally, Somalia has several diplomatic missions abroad. There are likewise various foreign embassies and consulates based in the capital Mogadishu and elsewhere in the country.

Somalia is also a member of many international organizations, such as the United Nations , African Union and Arab League. It was a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation in In , the gradual process of reconstituting the military was put in motion with the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government TFG.

Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal and could be punished by up to death.

Unlike the pre-civil war period when most services and the industrial sector were government-run , there has been substantial, albeit unmeasured, private investment in commercial activities; this has been largely financed by the Somali diaspora , and includes trade and marketing, money transfer services, transportation, communications, fishery equipment, airlines, telecommunications, education, health, construction and hotels.

Somalia's economy consists of both traditional and modern production, with a gradual shift toward modern industrial techniques. Somalia has the largest population of camels in the world.

The nomads also gather resins and gums to supplement their income. Agriculture is the most important economic sector of Somalia. With the advantage of being located near the Arabian Peninsula, Somali traders have increasingly begun to challenge Australia 's traditional dominance over the Gulf Arab livestock and meat market, offering quality animals at very low prices.

In response, Gulf Arab states have started to make strategic investments in the country, with Saudi Arabia building livestock export infrastructure and the United Arab Emirates purchasing large farmlands.

Prior to the outbreak of the civil war in , the roughly 53 state-owned small, medium and large manufacturing firms were foundering, with the ensuing conflict destroying many of the remaining industries.

However, primarily as a result of substantial local investment by the Somali diaspora, many of these small-scale plants have re-opened and newer ones have been created.

The latter include fish-canning and meat-processing plants in the northern regions, as well as about 25 factories in the Mogadishu area, which manufacture pasta , mineral water , confections , plastic bags , fabric , hides and skins, detergent and soap , aluminium , foam mattresses and pillows , fishing boats , carry out packaging, and stone processing.

The Central Bank of Somalia is the official monetary authority of Somalia. Owing to a lack of confidence in the local currency, the US dollar is widely accepted as a medium of exchange alongside the Somali shilling.

Dollarization notwithstanding, the large issuance of the Somali shilling has increasingly fuelled price hikes, especially for low value transactions.

According to the Central Bank, this inflationary environment is expected to come to an end as soon as the bank assumes full control of monetary policy and replaces the presently circulating currency introduced by the private sector.

Although Somalia has had no central monetary authority for more than 15 years between the outbreak of the civil war in and the subsequent re-establishment of the Central Bank of Somalia in , the nation's payment system is fairly advanced primarily due to the widespread existence of private money transfer operators MTO that have acted as informal banking networks.

As the reconstituted Central Bank of Somalia fully assumes its monetary policy responsibilities, some of the existing money transfer companies are expected in the near future to seek licenses so as to develop into full-fledged commercial banks.

This will serve to expand the national payments system to include formal cheques, which in turn is expected to reinforce the efficacy of the use of monetary policy in domestic macroeconomic management.

With a significant improvement in local security, Somali expatriates began returning to the country for investment opportunities. Coupled with modest foreign investment, the inflow of funds have helped the Somali shilling increase considerably in value.

The Somali shilling was the strongest among the global currencies traded by Bloomberg , rising close to 50 percentage points higher than the next most robust global currency over the same period.

It was founded in by the Somali diplomat Idd Mohamed , Ambassador extraordinary and deputy permanent representative to the United Nations.

The SSE was established to attract investment from both Somali-owned firms and global companies in order to accelerate the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction process in Somalia.

The World Bank reports that electricity is now in large part supplied by local businesses. Somalia has reserves of several natural resources, including uranium , iron ore , tin , gypsum , bauxite , copper , salt and natural gas.

The CIA reports that there are 5. The presence or extent of proven oil reserves in Somalia is uncertain. The CIA asserts that as of [update] there are no proven reserves of oil in the country, [5] while UNCTAD suggests that most proven oil reserves in Somalia lie off its northwestern coast, in the Somaliland region.

In the late s, UN geologists also discovered major uranium deposits and other rare mineral reserves in Somalia.

It unites five major Somali companies from the trade , finance , security and telecommunications sectors, following a joint agreement signed in Istanbul to provide electricity and gas infrastructure in Somalia.

According to the Central Bank of Somalia, as the nation embarks on the path of reconstruction, the economy is expected to not only match its pre-civil war levels, but also to accelerate in growth and development due to Somalia's untapped natural resources.

Somalia is endowed with renewable energy resources and ranked no. After the start of the civil war, various new telecommunications companies began to spring up and compete to provide missing infrastructure.

Funded by Somali entrepreneurs and backed by expertise from China , South Korea and Europe, these nascent telecommunications firms offer affordable mobile phone and Internet services that are not available in many other parts of the continent.

Customers can conduct money transfers such as through the popular Dahabshiil and other banking activities via mobile phones, as well as easily gain wireless Internet access.

After forming partnerships with multinational corporations such as Sprint , ITT and Telenor , these firms now offer the cheapest and clearest phone calls in Africa.

There are presently around 25 mainlines per 1, persons, and the local availability of telephone lines tele-density is higher than in neighbouring countries; three times greater than in adjacent Ethiopia.

Despite their rivalry, several of these companies signed an inter-connectivity deal in that allows them to set prices, maintain and expand their networks, and ensure that competition does not get out of control.

Investment in the telecom industry is held to be one of the clearest signs that Somalia's economy has continued to develop despite civil strife in parts of the country.

After a twenty-year hiatus, the station was officially re-launched on 4 April Additionally, Somalia has several private television and radio networks.

There are also a number of online media outlets covering local news, [] including Garowe Online , Wardheernews, and Puntland Post. The internet country code top-level domain ccTLD for Somalia is.

It was officially relaunched on 1 November by. The bill paves the way for the establishment of a National Communications regulator in the broadcasting and telecommunications sectors.

Somalia has a number of local attractions, consisting of historical sites, beaches, waterfalls, mountain ranges and national parks. The tourist industry is regulated by the national Ministry of Tourism.

The autonomous Puntland and Somaliland regions maintain their own tourism offices. Sixty-two airports across Somalia accommodate aerial transportation; seven of these have paved runways.

Established in , Somali Airlines was the flag carrier of Somalia. It suspended operations during the civil war. Over six of these private airline firms offer commercial flights to both domestic and international locations, including Daallo Airlines , Jubba Airways , African Express Airways , East Africa , Central Air and Hajara.

Possessing the longest coastline on the continent, [12] Somalia has several major seaports. Maritime transport facilities are found in the port cities of Mogadishu, Bosaso, Berbera , Kismayo and Merca.

There is also one merchant marine. Established in , it is cargo-based. Somalia had an estimated population of around 15 million inhabitants in ; [14] [15] the total population according to the census was 3.

Non-Somali ethnic minority groups make up the remainder of Somalia's population, and are largely concentrated in the southern regions.

The Bantus, the largest ethnic minority group in Somalia, are the descendants of slaves who were brought in from southeastern Africa by Arab and Somali traders.

The Somali diaspora is deeply involved in the politics and development of Somalia. The president of Somalia, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed , was a former diaspora Somali and held US citizenship which he voluntarily renounced in Somalia's population is expanding at a growth rate of 1.

There is little reliable statistical information on urbanization in Somalia. Rough estimates have been made indicating a rate of urbanization of 4.

Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalia. Somali dialects are divided into three main groups: Northern, Benadir and Maay.

Benadir also known as Coastal Somali is spoken on the Benadir coast, from Adale to south of Merca including Mogadishu, as well as in the immediate hinterland.

The coastal dialects have additional phonemes that do not exist in Standard Somali. Maay is principally spoken by the Digil and Mirifle Rahanweyn clans in the southern areas of Somalia.

A number of writing systems have been used over the years for transcribing the Somali language. Of these, the Somali alphabet is the most widely used, and has been the official writing script in Somalia since the Supreme Revolutionary Council formally introduced it in October Besides Ahmed's Latin script, other orthographies that have been used for centuries for writing Somali include the long-established Arabic script and Wadaad writing.

In addition to Somali, Arabic , which is also an Afro-Asiatic tongue, [] is an official national language in Somalia.

English is widely spoken and taught. It used to be an administrative language in the British Somaliland protectorate and due to globalization is now also prominent across Somalia.

English is the medium of instruction at many universities across Somalia, [] [] and is one of the primary working languages of major NGOs operating in Somalia.

It is now most frequently heard among older generations, government officials, and in educated circles.

Other minority languages include Bravanese , a variant of the Bantu Swahili language that is spoken along the coast by the Bravanese people , as well as Kibajuni , a Swahili dialect that is the mother tongue of the Bajuni minority ethnic group.

According to the Pew Research Center , It also stipulates that no law that is inconsistent with the basic tenets of Shari'a can be enacted.

Islam entered the region very early on, as a group of persecuted Muslims had sought refuge across the Red Sea in the Horn of Africa at the urging of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

In addition, the Somali community has produced numerous important Islamic sheikhs and clerics over the centuries, many of whom have significantly shaped the course of Muslim learning and practice in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and well beyond.

Among these Islamic scholars is the 14th-century Somali theologian and jurist Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i of Zeila , who wrote the single most authoritative text on the Hanafi school of Islam, consisting of four volumes known as the Tabayin al-Haqa'iq li Sharh Kanz al-Daqa'iq.

Christianity is a minority religion in Somalia, with adherents representing less than 0. In , during the early part of the colonial era, there were virtually no Christians in the Somali territories, with only about — followers coming from the schools and orphanages of the few Catholic missions in the British Somaliland protectorate.

There has been no archbishop in the country since , and the cathedral in Mogadishu was severely damaged during the civil war. In December , the Ministry of Justice and Religious Affairs also released a directive prohibiting the celebration of Christian festivities in the country.

According to the Pew Research Center, less than 0. In the case of the Bantu , these religious traditions were inherited from their ancestors in Southeast Africa.

Additionally, according to the Pew Research Center, less than 0. Until the collapse of the federal government in , the organizational and administrative structure of Somalia's healthcare sector was overseen by the Ministry of Health.

Regional medical officials enjoyed some authority, but healthcare was largely centralized. The socialist government of former President of Somalia Siad Barre had put an end to private medical practice in Somalia's public healthcare system was largely destroyed during the ensuing civil war.

As with other previously nationalized sectors, informal providers have filled the vacuum and replaced the former government monopoly over healthcare, with access to facilities witnessing a significant increase.

Beyond this plain is the maritime mountain range of the Karkaar Mountains marked on the map hosting the highest point in the country, the 2, m tall Mount Shimbiris.

The range extends from the country's border with Ethiopia in the west up to the tip of the Horn of Africa.

Southwards are broad plateau lands lacking perennial rivers that gradually drop in elevation to the east towards the Indian Ocean.

Alluvial plains are located further south and separated from the southern coast by a massive belt of ancient sand dunes that extend from Kismaayoto to Hobyo.

Most of the plateaus of Somalia are dissected by deep river valleys that have rivers flowing in the wet season but remain dry at other times of the year.

These rivers drain into the Indian Ocean. The only perennial rivers of the country are the Jubba and the Shabeelle to the south of the country.

Both have been marked on the map. The ongoing Civil War in Somalia has resulted in the country going through great turmoil.



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